Arbitration has become a pivotal mechanism for NRI dispute resolution. Given the complexity and potential bias in traditional litigation, arbitration offers a neutral ground for settling disputes. This alternative dispute resolution (ADR) method is particularly significant for Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) who encounter legal challenges in India. These challenges often arise due to issues related to property, investments or business dealings.

Arbitration for NRIs serves as an efficient and effective solution, providing a structured and private means to resolve conflicts without the prolonged timelines and procedural intricacies associated with court cases. The primary objective of this article is to guide NRIs through the arbitration process in India, emphasizing its benefits, the legal framework governing it and practical steps to ensure a seamless resolution of disputes.


Understanding Arbitration

Arbitration is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) where disputing parties agree to submit their conflicts to a neutral third party, known as an arbitrator, whose decision is binding. Unlike traditional litigation, which involves court proceedings, arbitration is more flexible, private and often faster.

Traditional litigation can be time-consuming and expensive, especially when dealing with the Indian legal system from abroad. Arbitration for NRIs is beneficial due to its streamlined process, which is both time-efficient and cost-effective. Additionally, arbitration proceedings are confidential, protecting the privacy of the parties involved.

NRI dispute resolution through arbitration offers several benefits compared to traditional court cases. It reduces the burden on courts, speeds up the resolution process, and allows for a more specialized examination of disputes by arbitrators who are often experts in the relevant field. This process is particularly advantageous for NRIs who may find it challenging to participate in court battles due to their absence from India.


Legal Framework for Arbitration in India

The legal foundation for arbitration in India is established by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. This Act aligns with the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, ensuring that India’s arbitration laws are in harmony with international standards. For NRIs, understanding this Act is crucial for navigating legal arbitration in India effectively.

Key provisions of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 include:

  • The Act requires that an arbitration agreement must be in writing. This agreement can be a clause within a contract or a separate agreement entirely, emphasizing the need for clarity and formal consent in resolving disputes through arbitration..
  • Parties have the freedom to determine the number of arbitrators, typically opting for either a sole arbitrator or an odd number to avoid deadlock. 
  • The arbitral tribunal is empowered to conduct proceedings in a manner it deems appropriate, ensuring fair and equal treatment of parties.
  • The Act aligns with the New York Convention and the Geneva Convention, facilitating the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in India, which is crucial for NRI dispute resolution.


Amendments to the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996

Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015

The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015 introduced several key changes aimed at making arbitration more efficient and attractive in India:

  • Time-bound Proceedings: The Act mandates that arbitral awards must be rendered within 12 months from the date the arbitral tribunal is constituted, with a possible extension of 6 months by mutual agreement of the parties​.
  • Fast Track Procedure: Section 29B introduces a fast-track arbitration procedure where parties can agree to resolve their disputes within 6 months​.
  • Interim Measures: The amendment allows Indian courts to grant interim measures even in arbitrations seated outside India​.
  • Costs and Fees: Section 31A empowers the arbitral tribunal to award costs based on a rational and realistic criterion, generally requiring the unsuccessful party to bear the costs​.

Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2019

The 2019 Amendment Act further refined the arbitration process:

  • Arbitration Council of India (ACI): The Act established the ACI to promote and regulate institutional arbitration in India. The Council is responsible for mandating arbitral institutions and arbitrators, enhancing the overall quality of arbitration practice in the country​​.
  • Statement of Claim and Defence: Timelines for filing the statement of claim and defence have been introduced to expedite the arbitration process, requiring these submissions to be completed promptly to avoid unnecessary delays​​.

Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2021

The 2021 Amendment Act addressed additional issues:

  • Automatic Stay Provisions: The Act introduced provisions for an automatic stay on arbitral awards in cases involving allegations of fraud or corruption, ensuring that enforcement of such awards is halted pending resolution of these serious allegations​.
  • Omission of the Eighth Schedule: The amendment removed the Eighth Schedule, which prescribed specific qualifications for arbitrators, to provide more flexibility in arbitrator appointments and avoid overly rigid criteria.


Steps in the Arbitration Process

Arbitration in India follows a structured process defined by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. Here’s a detailed process involved in the arbitration process:

  • Arbitration Agreement: The process begins with an arbitration agreement or clause within a contract. This agreement specifies that any disputes arising will be resolved through arbitration. It must be in writing and include essential details​​.
  • Initiating Arbitration: One party initiates arbitration by sending a notice to the other party. This notice outlines the dispute, the basis of the claim and the relief sought. It formally sets the arbitration process in motion​.
  • Appointment of Arbitrators: Parties can mutually agree on the arbitrator(s) or follow the procedure outlined in their arbitration agreement. For a three-member tribunal, each party appoints one arbitrator and the two arbitrators select the third​​.
  • Statement of Claim and Defence: The claimant submits a statement detailing the facts, points of dispute and the relief sought, along with supporting documents. On the other hand, the respondent submits a defence against the claim, which may include counterclaims​​.
  • Hearings: The arbitral tribunal conducts hearings where both parties present their cases, submit evidence and examine witnesses​.
  • Interim Relief: Parties can request interim measures from the tribunal or courts to preserve assets or maintain the status quo during the arbitration. These measures are essential for ensuring that the arbitration process is not undermined​​.
  • Arbitral Award: After considering all evidence and arguments, the tribunal issues a binding decision known as the arbitral award. The award must be in writing and signed by the arbitrators.
  • Enforcement and Execution: The arbitral award is enforceable as a court decree. If a party fails to comply with the award, the other party can seek enforcement through the courts​​.


Benefits of Arbitration for NRIs

Arbitration offers numerous advantages for NRIs (Non-Resident Indians) dealing with disputes in India. The arbitration process provides a structured and efficient alternative to traditional litigation, making it particularly beneficial for NRIs. Here are the key benefits:


Arbitration is generally faster than court litigation. The process is streamlined with set timelines for each stage, reducing the overall duration of dispute resolution. For instance, the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015, mandates that arbitral awards should be made within 12 months, with a possible extension of 6 months by mutual agreement​​. This is particularly advantageous for NRI dispute resolution as it minimizes the time spent away from their home country.


Although arbitration can involve significant upfront costs, such as arbitrator fees and administrative expenses, it often proves to be more cost-effective than prolonged court litigation. The absence of extensive court procedures and quicker resolution contribute to overall cost savings​​.


Arbitration proceedings are private, and the details are not disclosed to the public. This confidentiality is crucial for NRIs who might want to keep their legal disputes discreet, especially if they involve sensitive issues such as business dealings or family matters​​.


Arbitration allows parties to have more control over the process. They can choose the arbitrators, decide on procedural rules, and select the venue and language of arbitration. This flexibility is essential for NRIs, who may prefer certain locations or need proceedings in specific languages​​.



Arbitration for NRIs provides a highly effective solution for resolving disputes related to property, investments and business dealings in India. The Indian arbitration process, governed by the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, ensures a structured, time-efficient, and cost-effective method that is particularly advantageous for NRIs. This process is not only faster and less expensive than traditional litigation but also offers confidentiality and flexibility, allowing parties to choose arbitrators, set procedural rules, and maintain privacy. 

For NRIs facing legal disputes in India, leveraging the benefits of arbitration can lead to efficient and favorable outcomes. A Agarwalla & Co. brings unparalleled expertise in guiding NRIs through the intricate Indian arbitration process. Our team is dedicated to ensuring that your disputes are resolved swiftly, cost-effectively and with the utmost confidentiality. Trust our legal professionals to navigate the complexities of legal arbitration in India, providing you with peace of mind and robust legal support. 

Explore Efficient Arbitration Solutions for NRIs in India

Navigate legal disputes in India efficiently with our specialized arbitration services tailored for Non-Resident Indians. Our team offers comprehensive support to ensure your disputes are resolved swiftly, cost-effectively, and with confidentiality. Trust our expertise to guide you through the complexities of the arbitration process, providing robust legal solutions that protect your interests. Contact A Agarwalla & Co. today and benefit from our commitment to delivering favourable outcomes for your legal challenges.


Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the primary advantage of choosing arbitration over traditional litigation for NRIs?

Arbitration for NRIs offers several advantages, with efficiency being a key factor. Traditional court litigation can be inconvenient, especially for NRIs who may find it challenging to attend court hearings in India regularly. The Indian arbitration process is designed to be quicker, with set timelines for resolving disputes. For example, the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015, mandates that arbitral awards should be made within 12 months, which can be extended by six months by mutual agreement​.

2. How are arbitration proceedings initiated in India for NRIs?

To initiate legal arbitration in India, an NRI must send a notice of arbitration to the opposing party. This notice outlines the dispute, the relief sought and the legal basis for the claim. The parties can agree on the selection of arbitrators as per the arbitration agreement. If there is no agreement, the court can appoint an arbitrator. This step-by-step approach ensures that the process is formally set in motion and both parties are aware of the impending proceedings​.

3. Are arbitral awards enforceable internationally for NRIs?

Yes, one of the significant arbitration benefits for NRIs is the enforceability of arbitral awards internationally. India is a signatory to the New York Convention, which means that arbitral awards made in India are enforceable in over 160 countries. This international enforceability is crucial for NRIs who may need to enforce an award in a foreign country, ensuring that the resolution is effective globally​​.

4. What are the costs associated with arbitration for NRIs compared to traditional litigation?

While the upfront costs of arbitration, such as arbitrator fees and administrative expenses, can be significant, the overall process is often more cost-effective than traditional litigation. NRI dispute resolution through arbitration tends to be quicker, reducing long-term legal fees and associated costs.

5. How does arbitration maintain confidentiality for NRIs dealing with sensitive disputes?

One of the primary arbitration benefits for NRIs is the confidentiality of the proceedings. Unlike court cases, which are public, arbitration hearings and awards are private. This confidentiality is crucial for NRIs who may have business or personal matters they wish to keep discreet. The Indian arbitration process ensures that all proceedings and documents remain confidential unless both parties agree otherwise​

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